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What Is Technology Transfer in International Business

NEGOTIATION THEORY. This theory takes an opposite view to that of the theory of dependence. Negotiation theory recognizes the potential benefits that multinational companies can bring to their host countries. In other words, technologies in advanced countries do not have a detrimental effect on the economies of developing societies. Raymond Vernon (1971), an advocate of this theory, developed a concept known as „obsolescé negotiation“, which explains the relationship between multinationals and host countries. The bargaining power of developing countries tends to increase after a while, especially as technology stabilizes and competition from other developed countries for the same technology increases. Competition among developed countries increases the choice available to developing countries. Once foreign investment has „sunk“, the host country is in a much stronger position to negotiate a better deal and, at this stage, multinationals cannot credibly threaten to withdraw (Stepan, 1978). Vernon also suggests that the innovator`s monopoly is not permanent, as most products tend to move from a „monopoly to an oligopoly to viable competition“ (Vernon 1971, p. 91).

This is also called product life cycle theory. Research joint ventures are an advantageous way to acquire high-risk technologies for several reasons. First, joint ventures allow the risks and costs associated with early technology research to be shared among several companies, reducing the burden on each company. Second, the resources and expertise needed to develop certain technologies can be spread across multiple companies, so RJVs are the only way to combine these resources in a single effort. Third, in industries where technology is advancing rapidly, RJVs are an effective way to keep up with new developments. Finally, RJVs are often used to develop and set critical technical standards in certain industries, particularly telecommunications. These reasons suggest that RJVs will continue to gain importance as a technology transfer tool. Technology is any device or process used for productive purposes. In the broadest sense, it is the sum of how a particular group sources goods and services, when the group is a nation, an industry or a single enterprise. There is a fundamental feature of the technology that requires clear recognition.

Unlike raw materials and capital, technology is not exhausted or its supply is reduced when it is transferred or used. It is usable, but not consumable. Once created, the technology is inexhaustible until it becomes obsolete. Therefore; The export of the technology does not necessarily have to lead the country of origin to reduce its use of the technology. Indirectly, there may be a decline if the recipient country creates an industry that is large to change the global balance of supply and demand for the goods produced by the technology in question. This is not the case for most of the technologies sought by developing countries. Technology transfer activities differ depending on the exact nature of the project and may include a number of different activities, including: With the aim of increasing the application of government research results to industrial technology problems (and thus stimulating technology-based economic growth), the U.S. government has passed a series of laws since 1980 to promote technology transfer from laboratories. government to industry.

promote. Technology licensing was the first focus of the activity, based on the idea that government labs were like treasure chests of available technologies that could easily be applied to business needs. In fact, licensing activity for government technologies is extremely limited, except in the National Institutes of Health. The NIH has been the source of several breakthrough therapies and other medical technologies and maintains close relationships with the pharmaceutical industry, allowing the agency to generate large amounts of royalty revenue. Historically, and to a large extent even at the beginning of the twenty-first century, technology transfer takes place between and between developed countries. However, new forms of multinational enterprises imply a dispersion of production tasks throughout the world. In the case of developing countries, technology must meet local needs and be socially accepted. If technology is not adapted, it can have negative economic, social and environmental impacts. The chemical disaster in Bhopal, India, is a typical example. Methyl isocyanate (MIC), which escaped from a Union Carbide Corporation pesticide plant, immediately killed more than 2,000 people and injured or disabled more than 200,000 others. The death toll has reached 20,000 since the accident on 3 December 1984. There was a lack of information on hazardous technologies, workers were poorly trained, and important safety equipment was not functional due to poor maintenance.

In this case, the technology would have had to be modified to make it adaptable to the new environment. 5. Buy-back agreements – This is a form of agreement between stakeholders from developing countries and large foreign companies in which a foreign company provides industrial equipment in exchange for profits from the sale of raw materials or goods produced. This type of technology transfer is often used in the construction of new factories and other related enterprises. The main legitimate channels for technology transfer are licensing, foreign direct investment and joint ventures. Most technology transfer takes the form of licences on specific terms agreed by suppliers and recipients. Suppliers receive monetary rewards, while beneficiaries expand their economic opportunities. Software has enabled private users to develop, modify and improve software products.

In fact, it has led to a kind of technology transfer that can lead to the proliferation of new products. While this doesn`t seem to be useful to businesses, some companies have embraced software and open source code, making their products more appealing. 1. Vertical technology transfer – This transfer chain includes basic research to applied research, applied research to development and development to production. We also talk about internal technology transfer. This type of transfer usually takes place between research associations, universities and governments, among others. Technology transfer between private companies is most often done through licensing, although other mechanisms such as joint ventures, research consortia and research partnerships are also very popular. Licensing is a big deal in itself. In 2002, U.S. companies received more than $66 billion in technology license payments from other organizations, of which $58 billion came from domestic sources.

U.S. Department of Commerce data compiled in the mid-1990s showed that international technology licenses were growing by about 18 percent per year and national technology licenses by 10 percent per year. Often, there are several actors in this type of technology transfer. Venture capital firms, for example, can play a huge role in financing the development of these technologies, leading to start-ups. In 2007, the New York Times reported that some universities had developed „technology transfer offices.“ The article used Neven Vision, a company founded through venture capital investments as well as the Technology Transfer Practices of the University of Southern California, as an example. History has also noted that universities benefit not only from patents, but also from potential foundations, if a company were to succeed. The use of technology transfer methods enables SMEs to meet challenges and make positive contributions to technological progress, economic growth and their own capacity for innovation. Since technology transfer is a general phenomenon, it can take place in virtually any industry or field. Individual inventors and entrepreneurs, small and medium-sized enterprises as well as large enterprises are involved and benefit from technology transfer. Universities, where much of the basic and high-tech research takes place, are another important source of technology transfer. Some universities have departments dedicated exclusively to this goal and staffed with people who facilitate the transfer of research ideas into real-world applications that benefit society.

These technology transfer departments take on many roles, including record holder, marketer, and negotiator. Universities receive royalties or fixed fees for the patented technologies they commercialize, although in many cases they are low because the new technologies are new and unproven, which creates a risk for market organizations. Also known as technology transfer, technology transfer (ToT) between universities, businesses and governments can take place formally or informally to share skills, knowledge, technologies, manufacturing methods, etc.

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